|Managing Your Water Supply A Guide to Fire Streams and Pump Operations|
IntroductionFire Hydraulics is an introduction to the principles, variables and calculations concerned with the practical application of water as utilized in the fire service. An overview of fire characteristics, properties of water, apparatus and appliances, fire streams and hydraulic calculations will be addressed to establish a functional understanding of fireground hydraulics Just like managing your money, you know how much you can spend. On the fire ground there is NO water credit so credit cards are out of the question. You must balance your income with your outgo. To accomplish this, you will need to know how much water you have to spend and how you intend to spend it. If you can get the water to your pump, you can deliver it in some fashion. Remember, someone is dependent on you maintaining their fire stream. Pump operators should have a good understanding of pressure and the different kinds of pressure. Atmospheric Pressure is the weight of a column of air at a given location on the surface of the earth. Sea level atmospheric pressure is 14.7# on the average. Static Pressure is pressure on a confined fluid with no water flowing. Residual Pressure is pressure remaining on a system when water is flowing. Discharge Pressure is the pressure of the water at the point of discharge, can be nozzle pressure, pump discharge pressure or engine pressure. As a pump operator, you should understand how to calculate engine pump discharge pressures. The standard equation use to calculate this pressure is EP=NP+FL(+/- ) ELEV. Succesful fire fighting depends upon adequate fire streams. An adequate fire stream may be defined as one that reaches the seat of the fire and cools the material below it's ignition point.
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